Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues.Also known as somatic stem cells (from Greek Σωματικóς, meaning of the body), they can be found in juvenile as well as adult animals and humans, unlike embryonic stem cells.MeSH: D053687. Pluripotent cells can give rise to all of the cell types that make up the body; embryonic stem cells are considered pluripotent. Multipotent cells can develop into more than one cell type, but are more limited than pluripotent cells; adult stem cells and cord blood stem cells are considered multipotent.
An induced pluripotent stem cell, or iPS cell, is a cell taken from any tissue (usually skin or blood) from a child or adult and is genetically modified to behave like an embryonic stem cell. As the name implies, these cells are pluripotent, which means that they have the ability to form all adult cell types. Pluripotent adult stem cells, which reside as a subpopulation within adult stem cells, can be easily isolated by pluripotent cell surface markers, such as SSEA-3, SSEA-4 and CD49f. Moreover, pluripotent adult stem cells can be characterized by their ability to differentiate into cells of 3 germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) as well Author: Tsz Kin Ng, Daniel Pelaez, Veronica R. Fortino, Jordan Greenberg, Herman S. Cheung.
Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)—A type of pluripotent stem cell derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst. Induced pluripotent stem cells—Somatic (adult) cells reprogrammed to enter an embryonic stem cell–like state by being forced to express factors important for maintaining the "stemness" of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. Scientists also use the term somatic stem cell instead of adult stem cell, where somatic refers to cells of the body (not.